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Performance Targets in Occupational Health and Safety

Posted on February 18, 2019 at 11:15 AM Comments comments (0)


In Sulzer-Azaroff & Fellner's article, they discuss how to select safety targets.  When reviewing safety incident reports, they purport looking at the cause of injury, the corrective measures that were taken, the specific job operation that was being performed and if the appropriate procedures were being used.

When prioritizing safety behaviors, the recommended criteria includes:

  • It was related to an injury or injuries
  • Employees rate it as high priority
  • The behavior/task can be defined
  • Occurs frequently enough to be observed

If you are interested in reading the full article, click here.

If you are interested in services to increase orgranizational health and safety, click here.

Decreasing Cash Shortages in Small Businesses

Posted on February 18, 2019 at 11:00 AM Comments comments (0)

In Marholin & Gray's article, they discuss using group response-cost procedures to decrease cash shortages in small businesses.   Small businesses may experience cash shortages due to theft or error in calculation.  In the study, the small business implemented assignment of cash registers and deduction of shortages exceeding 1% from cashiers' pay.  Owners discussed the procedure and signs were posted adjacent to the cash registers.  During the response cost, there were immediate reductions in cash shortages.  In the 41 days of implementation, only three days exceed 1% cash shortage; resulting in deductions of a total of $8.70 per cashier.


If you are interested in reading the full article, click here.


If you are interested in services for decreasing cash shortages, click here.


Leadership and Culture

Posted on February 18, 2019 at 12:40 AM Comments comments (0)


In Krapfl & Kruja, 2015, the authors discuss the Leadership Behavior Menu.  They purport the behaviors that leaders need to engage in include: Value Proposition, Ethical Values, Execution Skills, Innovation and Creativity, Communication Skills, Enabling Skills, Team Building Skills, Confronting Adversity, Tenacity and Culture-Building Skills.


The article discusses how your organization's value proposition is aligned with your competitors'.  For Toyota, they are the "most reliable."  For Apple, they have the "best design."  Costco has the "best value."  Does your company have a value proposition that sets you apart in your market?  Does your business have long-term viability?


Enabling skills allow opportunities for subordinates to grow.  Leaders know how to delegate while offering support and guidance.  Creating a culture that leaders support with integrity is proven by actions.  Actions speak louder than words.  Do your execution and communication skills enhance the culture in your organization?


If you are interested in reading the full article, click here.

If you are interested in professional development in leadership and management, click here.



A New Frontier: Integrating Behavioral and Digital Technology to Promote Health Behavior

Posted on February 10, 2019 at 12:20 AM Comments comments (1)


Reading the Dallery et al., 2014 article while developing the continuing education opportunity, the authors purport the use empirically supported principles and procedures of ABA in the development of technology-based interventions.  They stated, "Knowledge of the basic principles and procedures of operant behavior will help increase the likelihood of choosing parameters that result in good outcomes. Selecting incorrect procedures may render the intervention ineffective, which could lead to the conclusion that the principles underlying the intervention do not work...Similarly, a tailored intervention based on the causes for health behavior may fail if the functional determinants are not addressed for each individual. For these reasons,behavior analysts can and should play a critical role in developing, implementing, and evaluating novel technology-based interventions."


In addition, the authors discuss dissemination potential.  The reach via technology is unknown. Technology solves many ongoing problems for ABA providers; personnel and geographical restrictions. The authors also report the potential to narrow the “access gap” to behavioral health interventions and reduce health disparities in disadvantaged and hard-to-reach populations;"  not to mention the sustainability across time.


Diversification of practice and saving the world with ABA have been at the forefront of blogs, vlogs, and conference offerings.  This article offers great insight in ways to do both!  


If you are interested in reading the article, you can access it here.

If you are interested in learning more about this continuing education opportunity, click here.

Health and Fitness: The ABCs of Incentive-Based Treatment in Health care

Posted on February 2, 2019 at 9:45 AM Comments comments (4)


Reading the Meredith et al., 2014 article while developing the continuing education opportunity, "If the health care community adopts incentive-based interventions that are uninformed by research or theory, and if these interventions fail, then policymakers may prematurely conclude that incentive-based treatment does not work" really hit home.  In our field, regardless of your area of competence, this applies.  The proof is in the pudding.  Outcomes are socially significant and impact perception but behavior change is individual.  The perception of ABA varies across people, parents and professionals dependent on their experiences-did the intervention work or not?


The authors discuss how behavior analytic research and theory can be used to inform incentive-based treatments in health care by:


Choosing a common framework: The authors discuss contingency management as an intervention has been shown to promote healthy behaviors. 


Applying the ABCs: Implementing incentive programs contingent on healthy behavior requires many considerations.  The authors discuss how rule-governed behavior affects implementation.  Other considerations include: choosing whose and what behavior(s) to incentivize, choosing the incentive, reinforcement vs. punitive consequences and reinforcement schedules.


If you are interested in learning more about this continuing education opportunity, click here.

What is Performance Management?

Posted on January 27, 2019 at 3:35 PM Comments comments (0)

Performance Management (PM) is a part of Organizational Behavior Management which is a sub-discipline of Applied Behavior Analysis.


According to Daniels & Bailey, 2014, Performance Management is creating a workplace that "brings out the best in people while generating the highest value for the organization."


What does that mean? PM focuses on increasing desirable workplace behaviors and decreasing undesirable workplace behavior. Results are seen quickly by maximizing performance. PM is a way to bring your passion to your job so you don't have to "work" a day in your life. Fun and work do mix. It increases many metrics for any organization.


PM includes operationally defining pinpoints (business targets), identifying the influences on performance, interventions to improve performance and measuring results.


Interested in learning more about our OBM services? Click here.


References

Boyce, T. E. & Geller, E. S. (2001). Applied behavior analysis and occupational safety. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(1), 31-60.

Daniels, A. & Bailey, J. (2014). Performance Management. Atlanta, GA: Aubrey Daniels International, Inc.

Diener, L. H., McGee, H. M., & Miguel, C. F. (2009). An integrated approach for conducting a behavioral systems. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management,29(2), 108-135.

Malott, M. E. (2003). Paradox of Organizational Change: Engineering organizations with behavioral systems analysis. Reno, NV: Context Press

Wilder, D. A., Austin, J., & Casella, S. (2009). Applying behavior analysis in organizations: Organizational behavior management. Psychological Services, 6(3), 202-211.

Applying OBM in Schools

Posted on January 14, 2019 at 12:00 AM Comments comments (0)


Working in schools for over 20 years, many staff are engaged in "putting out fires."  How do we move from this ineffective practice to creating lasting change on a classroom, school and district-wide level? 


Organizational behavior management, a sub-discipline of Applied Behavior Analysis, offers solutions.  Effectively pinpointing or targeting behaviors of students and staff and identifying influences on staff and student performance, can lead to results such as improving performance and decreasing I&RS referrals.  Proactively putting interventions in place to support students and staff can offer sustainability across school years.


"With any strategy, bringing out the best performance in school staff ensures maximum effectiveness towards achieving school improvement goals." -Gavoni, 2016


Maher, 1981, used OBM interventions to expand the range of functioning of school psychologists through performance feedback, trained special service teams to develop valuable individual education programs (IEPs) with a behavioral, in-service training program and ensured the implementation of a special education resource room program.  All interventions were carried out by school staff with OBM consultation.


Codding et al., 2008 utilized performance feedback, one OBM intervention technique,  for teachers implementing classwide behavior plans.  Treatment integrity (implementing the classwide plan as written) improved across all teachers.  This suggests that performance feedback was responsible for reported behavior changes in students.


Petscher & Bailey, 2006 utilized classwide interventions of prompting and self-monitoring with accuracy feedback for classroom instructional aides.  Classroom management procedures (specifically token economies) were improved after the interventions were implemented.


So how did I make the jump to decreasing I&RS referrals?  I have seen it in action.  When a school district implements positive behavior supports class and district wide, teachers are trained on the principles and procedures of ABA.  They have a tool kit (and have been trained on use) of procedures to utilize and are more equipped to handle Tier 1 challenging behaviors.  Having systems in place allows teachers to implement strategies without needing the support of the I&RS team.  Please do not mistake this post as the end all be all.  It is not this simple.  But it is also not rocket science.  A lot of planning needs to go into this type of behavior support as does the approval.  The intervention may take months to begin and even longer to sustain.  However, using OBM in School Districts can have tremendous effects on performance and decreasing referrals.


Interested in learning more about our School-Based services? Click here.


References 

Daniels, A. C., & Bailey, J. S. (2014). Performance management: Changing behavior that drives organizational effectiveness (5th ed.). Atlanta, GA: Aubrey Daniels International, Inc.

Codding, R. S., Livanis, A., Pace, G. M., & Vaca, L. (2008). Using performance feedback to improve treatment integrity of classwide behavior plans : An investigation of observer reactivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 417–422.

Maher, M. (1981).  IMPROVING THE DELIVERY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND RELATED SERVICES IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 3:1, 29-44, DOI: 10.1300/J075v03n01_03

Petscher, E. S., & Bailey, J. S. (2006). Effects of training, prompting, and self-monitoring on staff behavior in a classroom for students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 215–226.

What is Organizational Behavior Management (OBM)?

Posted on January 13, 2019 at 9:10 AM Comments comments (0)


Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) is a sub-discipline of ABA.  In OBM, the principles of behavior are used to improve employee and/or team performance at work.  Performance Management, Behavioral-Based Safety and Behavioral Systems Analysis and Intervention are some areas of emphasis in OBM.


What is Performance Management? Performance Management (PM) uses the principles of ABA  to manage individual employees or teams.  PM analyzes the work environment and provides interventions to decrease unproductive or increase productive performance .  PM interventions: goal setting, feedback, job aids, token systems, lottery systems.


What is Behavioral-Based Safety? Behavior-based safety is the analysis and modification of work environments to reduce injuries and promote the safe behavior of employees. Behavior-based safety targets the behavior of the employee(s) to increase safety and promote safe performance.


What is Behavioral Systems Analysis and Intervention? Behavior Systems Analysis and Intervention identifies areas of improvement that will produce the largest positive impact on the organization and focuses on planning and managing the variables that support desired performance.


Interested in learning more about our OBM services?  Click here.


References

Boyce, T. E. & Geller, E. S. (2001). Applied behavior analysis and occupational safety. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(1), 31-60.


Daniels, A. & Bailey, J. (2014). Performance Management. Atlanta, GA: Aubrey Daniels International, Inc.


Diener, L. H., McGee, H. M., & Miguel, C. F. (2009). An integrated approach for conducting a behavioral systems. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management,29(2), 108-135.


Malott, M. E. (2003). Paradox of Organizational Change: Engineering organizations with behavioral systems analysis. Reno, NV: Context Press


Wilder, D. A., Austin, J., & Casella, S. (2009). Applying behavior analysis in organizations: Organizational behavior management. Psychological Services, 6(3), 202-211.

What is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)?

Posted on January 12, 2019 at 8:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a science.  It applies the principles of behavior to improve socially significant behavior.  Determining the functions of behavior (or the reason[s] why the behavior occurs) allows behavior change agents to identify intervention packages to improve those behaviors that will enhance the person, team, and/or business behavior(s).

What is behavior? Human behavior includes everything that people do.  Behavior can be something you want to see happen more or less.

What are socially significant behaviors? Behaviors that are appropriate, acceptable, and important. When significant changes are made in these and collateral behaviors, it is to a meaningful degree.  It has importance to the person, caregivers, and/or stakeholders involved.

Different applications of ABA: Many people have heard of ABA in the context of therapy for children with Autism.  However, ABA encompasses much more than treatment for children with Autism.  ABA has a research base in the fields of Health and Fitness, Gerontology, Addictions Therapy, Trauma Based Care, and Big Business (to name a few).

To read more about ABA applications in business, check out our blog on Organizational Behavior Management.

References

Baer, D., Wolf, M., & Risley, T. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97.

Cooper, J., Heron, T., & Heward, W. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall

Daniels, A. & Bailey, J. (2014). Performance Management. Atlanta, GA: Aubrey Daniels International, Inc.

Fisher, W., Piazza, C. & Roane, H. (2011). Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis. New York: Guilford Press


 



What We Don't Know about Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Posted on August 24, 2017 at 10:10 AM Comments comments (0)


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is primarily known as the research-based treatment for individuals with Autism.  Many people believe that ABA is discrete trial teaching (DTT).  DTT is one of the many components of ABA.  However, there are a vast array of principles and procedures that fall under the umbrella of ABA.  In the following blog, programming pivotal behaviors (i.e.: self-initiation, self-management) is discussed.   Rather than working on specific targets or things to teach, programming pivotal behaviors (wide area of functioning) will produce greater effects.  When teaching learners to increase motivation, self-initiate, or self-manage, educating across behaviors instead of teaching a discrete skill can produce acquisition, mastery, and generalization at a faster rate. 


To do this: Utilize natural reinforcement (occurs directly as a result of the behavior emitted [student studies hard and pays attention in class-natural reinforcement=get good grades]) Intersperse mastery trials (make learners successful by reviewing known targets) Use learner-selected materials (Allow the learner to choose writing utensils, actual materials to create/make, etc.) Teach learner-initiated responses (What does the student want to learn about?) Motivation is described as observable individual responding that shows an increased reaction to social and environmental situations. Simply, the learner's affect, interest, enthusiasm, and happiness increases. Self-initiated learning increases spontaneous interactions by teaching the learner to initiate question asking, which makes the learner viewed as socially appropriate.  Self-management or monitoring gives the learner a sense of responsibility for his/her actions which increases self-esteem.  A benefit of self-monitoring is that no one else is needed to observe the learner or reinforce her/him.


How to teach Pivotal Behaviors: Give the learner choice in teaching interactions.  This will decrease disruptive behaviors and increase adaptive behaviors (i.e.: time on task).  For instance, where will the teaching be completed, what materials will be used, etc.  If the learner is unable to make a choice without options, offer them a forced choice (between two plausible options).  This can be done verbally, with pictures, or in written format. Vary hard or teaching tasks with familiar, easy tasks.  Motivation decreases because of repeated failures.  Make learners successful by having them respond correctly.  This increases the probability that they will be successful with the teaching task.  This is called building behavior momentum.  Vary task size.  If a task is difficult, teach it in steps to make the child successful.  This will decrease frustration and build on the skills he/she currently has.  Modify the pace of teaching.  Quick instruction is much more likely to be successful than long, and what becomes boring, tasks. Reinforce all attempts of what you are teaching.  This will improve the learner???s responsiveness during social interactions.  Use enthusiastic praise!  The power of praise is highly undervalued. Natural reinforcement is directly related to the task being taught.  Natural reinforcement increases motivation and rate of learning.  For instance, if the learner requests that a peer plays a board game (being a board game that the learner enjoys); it is naturally reinforced when the peer and learner play. Priming through practice.  Have the learner practice or role play at home to help with social interactions at school or in the community.  This increases generalization (being able to perform at home, school, and in the community with different people and in dissimilar situations).


References

Cooper, J., Heron, T., & Heward, W. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Koegel, R.L., Koegel, L. K., & Carter, C. M. (1999). Pivotal teaching interactions for children with Autism. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 576-594.


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